A. Brown and W.J.Meath
J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9351-9365.
Publication year: 1998

The absolute laser phase dependence of the time-dependent populations of the molecular states, including the steady-state (long time) populations of the states, associated with the interaction of a molecule with a pulsed laser is investigated using illustrative two-level examples. One-photon transitions, including the effects of permanent dipoles, are discussed as a function of the pulse duration, intensity, and (absolute) laser phase, for selected laser frequencies. The effects of laser phase can be large, depending on the values of the pulse duration for a given frequency and intensity. The effects of permanent dipoles, relative to no permanent dipoles, are significant for large laser field strengths ε0.ε0. When the laser-molecule coupling parameter b=μ12ε0/E21⩾0.2,where μ12 and E21 are the transition dipole and energy difference between the ground and excited states, respectively, the dynamics of the pulse-molecule interaction are (strongly) phase dependent, independent of pulse duration, whereas the corresponding steady-state populations of the molecular states may or may not be phase-dependent depending on the pulse duration. Analytical rotating wave approximations for pulsed laser-molecule interactions are useful for interpreting the dynamics and the steady-state results as a function of field strength and pulse duration, including the effects of permanent dipole moments. The results reported in this paper are based on molecular parameters associated with an S0→S1 electronic transition in a dipolar molecule. However, they are presented in reduced form and therefore can be scaled to other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Short, intense pulses at or beyond the limits of current laser technology will often be required for the types of absolute laser phase effects of this paper to be appreciable for electronic excitations. The discussion, in the UV-VIS, also suffers from the use of a two-level model and from the requirement of field intensities that can be beyond the Keldysh limit. For other spectral regions, these absolute laser phase effects will be much more readily applicable.